Our joints are the parts of our body that allow action during the movement of the body and move on certain axes. Spine and pelvis in the main skeleton; Hip-Shoulder connecting with the peripheral skeleton, knee, elbow, ankle and wrist joints are different to the highest degree. Hands and feet constitute systems of joints.
The common tissue in all joints is the cartilage. Diseases that involve the cartilage tissue influence the joint function and impair the movement. Cartilage diseases might be caused by infections, traumas, metabolic factors and congenital factors. Majority of joints are covered by a membranous structure that releases fluid and is called synovial membrane. The fluid released by this membrane nourishes and also lubricates the joints. Synovia and cartilage interact with one another; therefore, disorders associated with each one of them might influence and impair both structures. Some joints might contain discs, meniscus and ligaments. Every element contained within the joint might lead to disorders in individual elements or in the whole system. For example, meniscus tear abrades the cartilage in time while at the same time might lead to synovial reaction. If not intervened on time, permanent cartilage damage can occur although meniscus is treated.
Orthopaedic joint surgery aims to treat the consequences of joint diseases that result in mechanical impairment. With the introduction of “Arthroscopy” technique in orthopaedic joint surgery, the joints can be accessed with less harm, while it can assess the intraarticular elements in a short time and simultaneously provide the treatment.
The word arthroscopy is derived from two words: Arthro (joint), scopy (optical imaging). It means the optical imaging of the joints. The optical instruments are used to access the joints through safe channels and the mechanical causes are repaired and removed by means of 3-5 mm- diameter devices. The injured tissues can also be repaired. The magnification property of the optical system enables the identification of the lesion well and detailed treatment.